During the late stages of the Human Genome Project and in the years thereafter,
several important private and public spin-off projects have been launched. These
projects are capitalizing on the new biology and new technologies brought about
by the HGP that have enabled their research to go forward. They include
Genomic Science Program
GSP research conducts explorations of microbes and plants at the molecular,
cellular, and community levels. The goal is to gain insights about fundamental
biological processes and, ultimately, a predictive understanding of how living
systems operate. The resulting knowledgebase—all linked through DNA sequence
and freely available—will catalyze the translation of science into new
technologies for energy and environmental applications.
1000 Genomes Project
The 1000 Genomes Project is sequencing the genomes of at least a thousand people
from around the world. The project is funded by Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
in Hinxton, England; the Beijing Genomics Institute Shenzhen in China; and the
US NIH National Human Genome Research Institute. The project's goal is tol develop
a new map of the human genome that will provide a view of biomedically relevant
DNA variations at a resolution unmatched by current resources. As with other
major human genome reference projects, data from the 1000 Genomes Project will
be made swiftly available to the worldwide scientific community through freely
accessible public databases.
Human Microbiome Project
Within the body of a healthy adult, microbial cells are estimated to outnumber human cells by a factor of ten to one. These communities, however, remain largely unstudied, leaving almost entirely unknown their influence upon human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition. To take advantage of recent technological advances and to develop new ones, the NIH Roadmap has initiated the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) with the mission of generating resources enabling comprehensive characterization of the human microbiota and analysis of its role in human health and disease.
The Genographic Project is a five-year research partnership led by National
Geographic and IBM. Researchers are using cutting-edge genetic and computational
technologies to analyze historical patterns in DNA from participants around
the world to better understand our human genetic roots.
International HapMap Project
The goal of the International HapMap Project is to develop a haplotype map
of the human genome, the HapMap, which will describe the common patterns of
human DNA sequence variation. The HapMap is expected to be a key resource for
researchers to use to find genes affecting health, disease, and responses to
drugs and environmental factors. The information produced by the Project will
be made freely available.
Microbial Genome Project
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) led the Microbial Genome Project from 1994-2005.
The projectssupported innovative, high-impact, peer-reviewed biological science
to seek solutions to difficult DOE mission challenges. These challenges included
finding alternative sources of energy, understanding biological carbon cycling
as it relates to global climate change, and cleaning up environmental wastes.
Microbial genome sequencingcontinues at DOE through the DOE Joint Genome Institute
Community Sequencing Program.
ENCODE: ENCyclopedia of DNA Elements
The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) launched a public research
consortium named ENCODE, the Encyclopedia Of DNA Elements, in September 2003,
to carry out a project to identify all functional elements in the human genome
sequence. The conclusions from this pilot project were published in June 2007
Environmental Genome Project
Many diseases are the outcome of a complex inter-relationship between multiple
genetic and environmental factors. Research suggests that individual susceptibility
is influenced more by certain genes than by exposure to environmental agents.
To better understand how individuals differ in their susceptibility to environmental
agents and how these susceptibilities change over time, the National Institute
of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) developed the Environmental Genome
Project (EGP) in 1997. The long-term goal of the EGP is to characterize how
specific human genetic variations, or polymorphisms, contribute to environmentally
induced disease susceptibility.
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project
The goal of the NCI's Cancer Genome Anatomy Project is to determine the gene
expression profiles of normal, precancer, and cancer cells, leading eventually
to improved detection, diagnosis, and treatment for the patient. By collaborating
with scientists worldwide, CGAP seeks to increase its scientific expertise and
expand its databases for the benefit of all cancer researchers.